DIP HOPPING e BIOTRASFORMAZIONI,

DIP HOPPING e BIOTRASFORMAZIONI,

due scalpelli per modellare un AROMA unico.

di Paolo Passaghe e Stefano Buiatti

(Birra Nostra Magazine 2/24)

Bibliografia

  1. Lam, K.C., Foster, I.I.R.T., & Deinzer, M. (1986). Aging of hops and their contribution to beer flavor. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 34, 763–770.
  2. Kishimoto, T., Wanikawa, A., Kagami, N., & Kawatsura, K. (2005). Analysis of hop derived terpenoids in beer and evaluation of their behavior using the stir bar-sorptive extraction method with GC–MS. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 4701–4707.
  3. Steinhaus, M., & Schieberle, P. (2007). Transfer of the potent hop odorants linalool, geraniol and 4-methyl-4-sulfanyl-2-pentanone from hops into beer, Proceedings of the 31st European Brewery Convention Congress, Venice, Fachverlag Hans Carl, Nürnberg, Germany, pp. 1004–1011.
  4. Steinhaus, M., Wilhelm, W., & Schieberle, P. (2007). Comparison of the most odor-active volatiles in different hop varieties by application of a comparative aroma extract dilution analysis. European Food Research and Technology, 226, 45–55.
  5. Van Opstaele, F., De Rouck, G., De Clippeleer, J., Aerts, G., & De Cooman, L. (2010). Analytical and sensory assessment of hoppy aroma and bitterness of conventionally hopped and advanced hopped pilsner beers. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 116, 445–458.
  6. Meilgaard M., Civille G.V., & Carr B.T. (1991). Sensory Evaluation Techniques (2nd ed.). CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton.
  7. King A.J., & Dickinson J.R. (2003). Biotransformation of hop aroma terpenoids by ale and lager yeasts. FEMS Yeast Research, 3, 53–62.
  8. Praet T., Van Opstaele F., Steenackers B., De Brabanter J., De Vos D., Aerts G., & De Cooman L. (2015). Changes in the hop-derived volatile profile upon lab scale boiling. Food Research International, 75, 1–10.
  9. Hauser D.G., & Shellhammer T.H. (2019). An overview of sustainability challenges in beer production, and the carbon footprint of hops production. MBAA Technical Quarterly, 56, 2–6.
  10. Gomes F.D.O., Guimaras B.P., Ceola D., & Ghesti G.F. (2022). Advances in dry hopping for industrial brewing: a review. Food Science and Technology, 42, 1–8.
  11. Goldstein, H., Ting, P., Navarro, A., & Ryder, D. (1999). Water-soluble hop flavor precursors and their role in beer flavor, Proceedings of the 27th Congress of the European Brewery Convention, Cannes, France, IRL Press, Oxford, pp. 53–62.
  12. Takoi, K., Itoga, Y., Takayanagi, J., Matsumoto, I., & Nakayama, Y. (2016). Control of hop aroma impression of beer with blend-hopping using geraniol-rich hop and new hypothesis of synergy among hop-derived flavour compounds. Brewing Science, 69, 85–93.
  13. Lafontaine, S., Caffrey, A., Dailey, J., Varnum, S., Hale, A., Eichler, B., Dennenlöhr, J., Schubert, C., Knoke, L., Lerno, L., Dagan, L., Schönberger, C., Rettberg, N., Heymann, H., & Ebeler, S.E. (2021). Evaluation of variety, maturity, and farm on the concentrations of monoterpene diglycosides and hop volatile/nonvolatile composition in five humulus lupulus cultivars. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 69, 4356–4370.
  14. Chenot C., Donck W., Janssens P., & Collin S. (2022) Malt and hop as sources of thiol S‑conjugates: thiol-releasing property of lager yeast during fermentation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 70, 3272−3279.
  15. Colomer, M.S., Funch, B., Solodovnikova, N., Hobley, T.J., & Förster, J. (2020). Biotransformation of hop derived compounds by Brettanomyces yeast strains. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 126, 280-288.
  16. Biendl, M., Kollmannsberger, H., & Nitz, S. (2003). Occurrence of glycosidically bound flavor compounds in different hop products, Proceedings of the 29th Congress of the European Brewery Convention, Dublin, CD-ROM, Contribution 21; Fachverlag Hans Carl, Nürnberg, Germany, pp. 1–6.
  17. Svedlund, N., Evering, S., Gibson, B., & Krogerus, K. (2022). Fruits of their labour: bio-transformation reactions of yeasts during brewery fermentation. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 106, 4929–4944.
  18. Kirin Brewery Company Limited, inventor; Japanese patent JP2013132275A registered July 2013.
  19. Passaghe, P., Tat, L., Goi, A., Vit, L., & Buiatti, S. (2023). Dip Hopping Technique and Yeast Biotransformations in Craft Beer Productions. Fermentation, 10, 1–26.
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